Describe in detail about Personality Development Stages based on Psycho-Analytic Theory. [PB BSc Nursing Feb 2018 Question ans Answer]

I) 1) Describe in detail about Personality Development Stages based on Psycho-Analytic Theory.
  1. Course Introduction
  2. Introduction
  3. Definitions/Terminology
  4. Structure of Psycho-Analytic Theory
  5. Dynamics of Psycho-Analytic Theory
  6. Stages of Personality Developments
  7. Uses of Nurses
  8. Conclusion
  9. Back Notes

  1. Course Introduction

  2. Inspired by Mr. Mrunal Patel, I will write some good quality answers for our Nurses from today (06-June-2018) onward.

    Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR University Post Basic BSc Nursing Examinations will be conducted on 19-08-2018. Before that I will at least finish some 2 years of question from the entire subject of first year including Communication English.

    Why this course.
    as I started to prepare for the examination I wanted to refer so many material. Even the readymade material available in the market are so incomplete, have lot of mistakes. So I decided to do this personally,
    Writing answer in the examination is an art. I will tell some of the tricks to write the examination, if you find any wrong bring to my notice. This is basically a revision ready table only for me, if you want to use it you can freely use it, if you don’t want no problem at all. I use some mnemonics, cheat code, memory palace for the ease remembering you can also create your own for the examination purpose

  3. Introduction
  4. Personality is derived from the Latin word Persona which means a mask worn by an actor while he plays a particular character on the stage. Personality refers to the organized, consistent and general pattern of behaviour of a person which helps us to understand his or her behaviour as an individual. Personality development refers to enhancing an individual’s personality for him to stand apart from the rest and make a mark of own. An individual with a pleasing personality is respected and appreciated by all.

  5. Definitions/Terminology
    • Personality:-
    • The Dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment – Allport

      Personality is the total quality of the Individual’s behaviour – Robert. S. Woodworth Personality as an integrated pattern of traits. – J.P. Gilford

      Personality is defined as the most of characteristics integration of an individual’s structure, modes of behaviour, interests, attitudes, capacities, abilities and aptitudes. – Munn

      Personality is a study concerns with the interaction of the biological organism with the social environment – Gardner Murphy

      Personality consist of the distinctive patterns of behaviour including thoughts and emotions that characterize each individuals adaptation to the situation of his or her life – Walter Mischel
      Personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actual observations over a long enough period of time to give reliable information – Watson

      Personality refers to deeply ingrained patterns of behaviour, which include the way one relates to, perceives and thinks about the environment and oneself. – American Psychiatric Association – 1987

    • Personality Development
    • Personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. Personality development occurs by the ongoing interaction of temperament , character, and environment.

    • Psycho-Analytical Theory
    • Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology. There are two basic factors which drive an individual and help in shaping his/her personality. Freud categorized his personality theory according to structure dynamics and development.

  6. Structure of Psycho-Analytic Theory
  7. Psychoanalytic theory first explained by Sigmund Freud. According to him, the human behavior is formed through an interaction between three components of the mind, i.e. Id, Ego and Super Ego.
    • Id: Id is the primitive part of the mind, it seeks immediate gratification of biological or instinctual needs. The biological needs are the basic physical needs and the instinctual needs are the natural needs, such as hunger, thirst, sex, etc.
      Id is the unconscious part of the mind; that act instantaneously without giving much thought to what is right and what is wrong.


    • Ego: Ego is the logical and the conscious part of the mind which is associated with the reality principle. This means it balances the demands of Id and super-ego in the context of real life situations. Ego is conscious and hence keep a check on Id through a proper reasoning of an external environment.


    • Super-Ego: The Super-Ego is related to the social or the moral values that an individual inculcates as he matures. It acts as an ethical constraint on behavior and helps an individual to develop his conscience. As the individual grows in the society, he learns the cultural values and the norms of the society which help him to differentiate between right and wrong.

    • Defense Mechanism: the ego employs a range of defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e., anxiety) or make good things feel better for the individual.


  8. Dynamics of Psycho-Analytic Theory
  9. Freud believed that “Psychic Energy” is the force of impetus required for mental functioning. Originating in the id, it instinctually fulfills basic physiological needs. As the child matures, psychic energy is diverted from the id to form the ego and then from the ego to form the super ego.

  10. Stages of Personality Developments
  11. Freud described formation of personality through 5 stages of psychosexual development.
    • Oral Stage: Birth to 18 Months: Erogenous Zone: Mouth
      Baby’s mouth is the focal point of pleasure, Children suck , bite and chew anything that fits into their mouth. At the age 4-6 months the development of ego begins. the infant starts to view the self as separate from the mother
    • Anal Stage: 18 Months to 3 Years: Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
      Major developmental task in this stage are gaining independence and control. Focus on the excretory function. Id is brought under the control of ego. Major source of pleasure changes from the mouth to the anal region, Children retention and expulsion the feces to get pleasure.
    • The Phallic Stage: 3 to 6 Years: Erogenous Zone: Genitals
      focal point of pleasure:- the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females.

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